No 2/2019, June

Factors Affecting Consumers' Dairy Products Preferences


Choice models represent a valid approach for the analysis of consumers’ preferences as these models offer an opportunity to investigate many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. This study with the purpose of investigating consumers’ preferences and their affecting factors were conducted by using the nested logit model in Sari, Iran in 2018. The results revealed that yoghurt, milk and cheese had the most preferences among the dairy products and consumers had more tendencies towards using low fat than full-fat dairy products. The results of factors affecting dairy products choice indicated that price and family cost decreased the probability of products being chosen, and age, education and attention to exercise variables increased this probability. Marketing mixed variables (4p) also had a significant effect on the choice of dairy products.

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Spatial Price Transmission and Trade in the European Dairy Sector


There exists a large literature on spatial price transmission in agro-food sectors, but research on milk sector is relatively limited. In addition, we cannot generalize the results of these studies due to their diversity in terms of methodology, periods and countries. The aim of the paper is precisely to generalize, or at least broaden the evidence on horizontal price transmission in European Union dairy market. We employ two stages approach. First, we test whether Law of One Price exists among European Union member states. Second, we try to explain our findings based on gravity model framework in a binary choice setting. Our results are in line with theoretical expectations: the volume of milk traded and Eurozone membership positively, the geographical distance negatively affects the probability of perfect price transmission. In addition, we show that horizontal price transmission is dependent on political group variables (New Member States versus Old Member States).

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Development of Methods Acquiring Real Time Very High Resolution Agricultural Spatial Information Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle


There is a need for high resolution spatial information to provide quality agricultural spatial information for better monitoring and management of farm activities to increase production and sustainable agricultural economic development. The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are able to capture very high resolution spatial data that can be transformed into useful geospatial information, databases and digital maps. However, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle methods of acquiring spatial data are yet to be developed. The objective of this study was to develop methods of acquiring real time high resolution agricultural spatial data using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. A qualitative case study research approach, and data collection method were used to achieve the objective. A ground truth data was carried out to eliminate errors. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle data acquisition system and data processing methods were developed. These methods could be used for better farm management and reduce the cost of inputs like fertilizers.

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Robotic Internal Audit – Control Methods in the Selected Company


Simultaneously with the gradual introduction of automation and robotics industry 4.0., it is necessary to apply and use control methods of internal audit. Robotics and automation now provide us with far greater scope for applying internal audit control methods. Especially in manufacturing and agriculturals businesses is data interoperability important to streamline the production process and save operating costs. With proper application of checkpoints at risk points, hard data can be retrieved to prevent losses or fraud . Using internal audit control methods, it is possible in real time to gain an overview of the company's situation and to contribute to better decision making by the management or the owners of the company. The article focuses on the implementation of robotic internal audit in the process of industrial beer production. The main goal is to elaborate own methodology for management of production or agricultural company within informatics and accounting to reduce high production and operating expenses.

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Time Series Models: Development Trends of Foodstuffs Consumption in CR Considering Healthy Eating


The agrarian sector can be understood in several ways, according to the integration of the agrarian sector into national economic structures. Understanding the agrarian sector in its complex relation to the sectors that represent the final consumption of already processed agricultural products - food (not agricultural raw materials) represents agribusiness. Among other issues, food consumption is affected by the newest nutrition trends and opinions on healthy eating and food safety. The paper´s aim is an indication of development tendencies in the consumption of some selected food types and subsequent construction of a short-term forecast, considering food quality and healthy eating. Some of the prognostic procedures based on time series extrapolation have been applied in this paper. Time series analysis is therefore the starting basis for assessment of the selected foodstuffs consumption developmental tendencies and a subsequent short-term forecasts construction.The results demonstrate unambiguously that, the time series analysis methods can be applied with success in finding development tendencies of the food consumption indicators studied. Application of the adaptive models in particular, can bring good quality outcomes in this field. Anyway, it is not possible to reach an unambiguous conclusion concerning the assessment whether the consumption of some selected food types is in line with nutritional recommendations. In some cases it is, in some it is not.

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Adaptive Perception and Adaptation Responses to Weather Shocks: An Adaptation Deficit


This study examines the influence of adaptive perception on farmers’ adaptive responses to climate change induced natural shocks in the Mekong River Delta (Viet Nam) from a data set of 329 farmers in 2017. Seemingly Unrelated Regression model is used and results show that, controlling for household and household head’s characteristics, farm characteristics, institutional factor, infrastructure, climate conditions, and past climate experiences, adaptive perceptions are the most important factor of adaptive responses. With respect to policy implication, sources and quality of information can be of important consideration due to the potential infl uences on farmers’ adaptive perception and their adaptation assessments. In addition, awareness on climate change and adaptation methods should be highlighted. Other policy options could also be suggested, such as: strengthening education level of farmers, and facilitating cheap technologies for farmers.

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Investigation of the Determinants of Market Power on Czech Pork Meat Market


An increasing market concentration in food retailing has generated concerns about the market power of retailers towards consumers and input suppliers. This is especially true for the Czech Republic, which has a CR5 in food retailing greater than 50%. Based on different indicators of food chain and pork meat market with respect to four groups of meat products with low and high value added it was analysed whether the evidence of market power in the Czech pork market exists. Analysis based on a New Empirical Industrial Organization model investigated the degree of market power of meat processing industry. The evidence of market power in meat processing industry is rather weak, although has increasing trend in the last year accompanying by growing market concentration ratio. However, the empirical results suggest that market power of retailing exists towards consumers and towards input suppliers (in particular, in the case of meat products with higher value added).

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Technical Efficiency Assessment of Intensive and Traditional Olive Farms in Southern Italy


Olive-growing plays an important role in Southern Italy’s agricultural sector. However, the profitability of many olive growing farms depends, still today, on public subsidies. The current changes in the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 2014-2020, oriented towards the direct payments decreasing, will inevitably have important effects on farmer incomes. This is why the olive farms will have to increase their level of direct profi tability to ensure their resilience on the market. Therefore, the measurement of technical effi ciency plays a crucial role in identifying more efficient management practices, and for this aim, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) represents the most widely used technique in productivity analysis. In this paper, constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale input-oriented models were used to investigate the technical and scale efficiency of intensive and traditional olive farms in Southern Italy, in order to highlight the performance of each farm. Results showed technical inefficiencies in both olive systems and, suggesting that improvements in the input allocation among all farms are needed. Findings could be useful to suggest the adoption of management strategies to optimize the use of inputs, aiming to achieve suitable levels of productive performance.

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Economic Aspect of Growing Pigs with Respect to Sex and Immunocastration


The minimization of boar taint according to welfare appears to be immunocastration. For this purpose a test was carried out for a total of 80 piglets in the growing stage. Animals were housed by sex, respectively 20 boars, 20 immunocasatrates, 20 barrows and 20 gilts. Animals were fed ad libitum, and the production variables were observed with an emphasis on the overall economy of their production. Intergroup differences were tested by variance analyse and the test groups of growing pigs were evaluated using a profit formula. It was shown that animals in the growing period had excellent parameters of the fattening (in the 65 days, the total gain was 19 kg, with daily feed intake below 0.7 kg, feed conversion ratio 1.2 kg and average daily gain 540-560 g). The effect of sex, or the castration of young pigs on the economy of the pig production in growing period is proved to be insignificant. This hypothesis was confirmed.

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How Rural Development Programmes Serve for Viability of Small farms? Case of Latvia and Lithuania


The analysis of structure of agricultural sector shows a poor viability of small-scale farms in new EU member states despite support of the Common Agricultural Policy. Considering this problem, the aim of the article is to identify indicators that can be used to show changes in the viability of small farms in order to bring policy makers more attention to this very important group of farms in the context of the agricultural economy in Latvia and Lithuania. For this purpose, 4 economic indicators were selected, analyzed and their impact to the change in the level of viability of small farms during 2007-2016 was assessed. The research based on the data of Farm Accountancy Data Network and Farm Structure Survey, using statistical data comparison, systematic indicator selection and mathematical induction methods. The results shows that despite growing of the rate of subsidies on investment and improving income level in small farms over the observed period , the viability of small farms remains heterogeneous and insufficient to contribute in constructing more resilient and sustainable agricultural sector both in Lithuania and in Latvia. Thus, in the upcoming Rural Development Programming period, the priority should be given to small-scale farms since they play a significant role not only in development of viability of agriculture in general but also are important to agricultural sustainability.

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