Adaptive Perception and Adaptation Responses to Weather Shocks: An Adaptation Deficit

DOI 10.7160/aol.2019.110206
No 2/2019, June
pp. 55-70

Ngo, Q.-T., Nguyen, H.-R., Nguyen, D.-T., Doan, N.-P., Le, V.-T. and Thai, T.-K. H. (2019) “Adaptive Perception and Adaptation Responses to Weather Shocks: An Adaptation Deficit", AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 55-70. ISSN 1804-1930. DOI 10.7160/aol.2019.110206.


This study examines the influence of adaptive perception on farmers’ adaptive responses to climate change induced natural shocks in the Mekong River Delta (Viet Nam) from a data set of 329 farmers in 2017. Seemingly Unrelated Regression model is used and results show that, controlling for household and household head’s characteristics, farm characteristics, institutional factor, infrastructure, climate conditions, and past climate experiences, adaptive perceptions are the most important factor of adaptive responses. With respect to policy implication, sources and quality of information can be of important consideration due to the potential infl uences on farmers’ adaptive perception and their adaptation assessments. In addition, awareness on climate change and adaptation methods should be highlighted. Other policy options could also be suggested, such as: strengthening education level of farmers, and facilitating cheap technologies for farmers.


Climate change, weather shocks, private adaptive responses, adaptive perception, adaptation deficit, Mekong River Delta, Viet Nam.


  1. Adger, W. N., Dessai, S., Goulden, M., Hulme, M., Lorenzoni, I., Nelson, R. D., Naess, L. O., Wolf, J. and Wreford, A. (2009) “Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change?”, Climatic Change, Vol. 93, No. 3, pp. 335-354. E-ISSN 1573-1480, ISSN 0165-0009. DOI 10.1007/s10584-008-9520-z.
  2. Adger, W. N., Huq, S., Brown, K., Conway, D. and Hulme, M. (2003) “Adaptation to climate change in the developing world”, Progress in Development Studies, Vol. 3, pp. 179-195. E- ISSN 1477-027X, ISSN 1464-9934. DOI 10.1191/1464993403ps060oa.
  3. ADPC/GTZ (2003) “Climate Change and Development in Vietnam: Agriculture and Adaptation for the Mekong Delta Region”, Division 44 - Environment and Infrastructure, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 31 Jan. 2019].
  4. Asfaw, S., Pallante, G., and Palma, A. (2018) “Diversification strategies and adaptation deficit: Evidence from rural communities in Niger”, World Development, Vol. 101, pp. 219-234. ISSN 0305-750X. DOI 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.004.
  5. Baltagi, B. H. (2013) “Econometric analysis of panel data", 5th ed., John Wiley & Son., 388 p. ISBN 978-1-118-67232-7. DOI 10.1002/9781118445112.stat03160.
  6. Barr, R., Fankhauser, S. and Hamilton, K. (2010) “Adaptation investments: a resource allocation framework”, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 15, No. 8, pp. 843-858. E-ISSN 1573-1596, ISSN 1381-2386. DOI 10.1007/s11027-010-9242-1.
  7. Belderbos, R., Carree, M., Diederen, B., Lokshin, B. and Veugelers, R. (2004) “Heterogeneity in R&D cooperation strategies”, International Journal of Industrial Organisation, Vol. 22, pp. 1237-1263. ISSN 0167-7187. DOI 10.1016/j.ijindorg.2004.08.001.
  8. Bhattarai, B., Beilin, R. and Ford, R. (2015) “Gender, agrobiodiversity, and climate change: A study of adaptation practices in the Nepal Himalayas”, World Development, Vol. 70, pp. 122-132. ISSN 0305-750X. DOI 10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.01.003.
  9. Bradshaw, B., Dolan, H. and Smit, B. (2004) “Farm-Level Adaptation to Climatic Variability and Change: Crop Diversification in the Canadian Prairies”, Climatic Change, Vol. 67, pp. 119-141. E-ISSN 1573-1480, ISSN 0165-0009. DOI 10.1007/s10584-004-0710-z.
  10. Breusch, T. S. and Pagan, A. R. (1980) “The Lagrange multiplier test and its applications to model specification in econometrics”, The Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 239-253. E-ISSN 1468-0262, ISSN 0012-9682. DOI 10.2307/2297111.
  11. Briggs, N. E. (2006) “Estimation of the standard error and confidence interval of the indirect effect in multiple mediator models”, Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 15 Dec. 2018].
  12. Brooks, N. and Adger, W. (2005) “Assessing and Enhancing Adaptive Capacity”, In: "Adaptation Policy Frameworks for Climate Change: Developing Strategies, Policies and Measures", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 165-181. ISBN-13 978-0521617604.
  13. Bryan, E., Deressa, T. T., Gbetibouo, G. A. and Ringler, C. (2009) “Adaptation to climate change in Ethiopia and South Africa: options and constraints”, Environment Society Policy, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 413-426. ISSN 1462-9011. DOI 10.1016/j.envsci.2008.11.002.
  14. Cameron, A. C. and Trivedi, P. K. (2005) “Microeconometrics: methods and applications”, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521848053. DOI 10.1017/CBO9780511811241.
  15. Carlo, A., Sirkku, J. and Grete, K. H. (2015) “Local climate change adaptation: moving from adjustments to transformation?”, Local Environment, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 401-407. E-ISSN 1469-6711, ISSN 1354-9839. DOI 10.1080/13549839.2014.908594.
  16. Deressa, T. T., Hassan, R. M., Ringler, C., Alemu, T. and Yesuf, M. (2009) “Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia”, Global Environment Change, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 248-255. ISSN 0959-3780. DOI 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.01.002.
  17. EU/MWH. (2006) “Linking Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management for Sustainable Poverty Reduction: Vietnam Country Study”, Montgomery Watson Harva sa/nv. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 31 Jan. 2019].
  18. Fankhauser, S. and McDermott, T. K. J. (2014) “Understanding the adaptation deficit: Why are poor countries more vulnerable to climate events than rich countries?”, Global Environmental Change, Vol. 27, pp. 9–18. ISSN 0959-3780. DOI 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.04.014.
  19. Fenton, A., Paavola, J. and Tallontire, A. (2017) “The role of microfinance in household livelihood adaptation in Satkhira district, Southwest Bangladesh”, World Development, Vol. 92, pp. 192-202. ISSN 0305-750X. DOI 10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.12.004.
  20. Field, C. B. (2014) “Climate change 2014 - Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: Regional aspects”, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107683860.
  21. Filmer, D. and Pritchett, L. H. (2001) “Estimating wealth effects without expenditure Data-Or tears: An application to educational enrollments in states of India”, Demography, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 115-132. E-ISSN 15337790, ISSN 00703370. DOI 10.2307/3088292.
  22. Fisher, M., Chaudhury, M. and McCusker, B. (2010) “Do forests help rural households adapt to climate variability? Evidence from Southern Malawi”, World Development, Vol. 38, No. 9, pp. 1241-1250. ISSN 0305-750X. DOI 10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.03.005.
  23. Geoff, K. (2014) “How Do Farmers’ Climate Change Beliefs Affect Adaptation to Climate Change?”, Society & Natural Resources, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 492-506. E -ISSN 1521-0723, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723. DOI 10.1080/08941920.2013.861565.
  24. Golob, T. F. and Regan, A. C. (2002) “Trucking industry adoption of information technology: a multivariate discrete choice model”, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 205-228. ISSN 0968-090X. DOI 10.1016/S0968-090X(02)00006-2.
  25. Hassan, R. and Nhemachena, C. (2008) “Determinants of African farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change: Multinomial choice analysis”, African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 83-104. ISSN 1993-3738.
  26. Howden, S. M., Soussana, J. F., Tubiello, F. N., Chhetri, N., Dunlop, M. and Meinke, H. (2007) “Adapting agriculture to climate change”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 104, No. 50, pp. 19691–19696. DOI 10.1073/pnas.0701890104.
  27. Igoden, C., Ohoji, P. and Ekpare, J. (1990) “Factors associated with the adoption of recommended practices for maize production in the Lake Basin of Nigeria”, Agricultural Administration and Extension, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 149-156. ISSN 0269-7475. DOI 10.1016/0269-7475(88)90013-X.
  28. IPCC (2012) “Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation”, In C. B. Field, V. Barros, T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, D. J. Dokken, K. L. Ebi, M. D. Mastrandrea, K. J. Mach, G. K. Plattner, S. K. Allen, M. Tignor, & P. M. Midgley (Eds.) "A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change", Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107607804.
  29. IIPCC (2014) “Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability-Part B: regional aspects-Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change”, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107683860.
  30. James, P. A. (2010) "Using farmers' preferences to assess development policy: a case study of Uganda", Development Policy Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 359-378. E-ISSN 1467-7679. DOI 10.1111/j.1467-7679.2010.00487.x.
  31. Kandlinkar, M. and Risbey, J. (2000) “Agricultural impacts of Climate Change; if adaptation is the answer, what is the question?”, Climate Change, Vol. 45, pp. 529-539. E-ISSN 1573-1480. ISSN 0165-0009. DOI 10.1023/A:1005546716266.
  32. Kinsey, B., Burger, K. and Gunning, J. W. (1998) “Coping with drought in Zimbabwe: Survey evidence on responses of rural HHs to risk”, World Development, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 89-110. ISSN 0305-750X. DOI 10.1016/S0305-750X(97)00124-1.
  33. Kuehne, G. (2014) “How do farmers’ climate change beliefs affect adaptation to climate change?”, Society & Natural Resources, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 492-506. E-ISSN 1521-0723, ISSN 0894-1920. DOI 10.1080/08941920.2013.861565.
  34. Kurukulasuriya, P. and Mendelsohn, R. (2007) “A Ricardian analysis of the impact of climate change on African cropland”, The World Bank. DOI 10.1596/1813-9450-4305.
  35. Le, A. T., Hoang, T. T. and Vo, V. N. (2014) “The impact of climate change on farmers' likelihoods in the Mekong Delta”, Paper presented at the The Sixth Forum on Consevation of Nature and Culture for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong Delta.
  36. Le Dang, H., Li, E., Nuberg, I. and Bruwer, J. (2014) “Farmers’ assessments of private adaptive measures to climate change and influential factors: a study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam”, Natural Hazards, Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 385-401. ISSN 0921-030X. E-ISSN 1573-0840. DOI 10.1007/s11069-013-0931-4.
  37. Lin, C. T. J., Jensen, K. L. and Yen, S. T. (2005) “Awareness of foodborne pathogens among US consumers”, Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 16, pp. 401-412. ISSN 0950-3293. DOI 10.1016/j.foodqual.2004.07.001.
  38. Lin, J. (1991) “Education and innovation adoption in agriculture: evidence from hybrid rice in China”, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 73, No. 3, pp. 713-723. E-ISSN 1467-8276, ISSN 0002-9092. DOI 10.2307/1242823.
  39. Maddison, D. (2007) “The perception of and adaptation to climate change in Africa”, Policy Research Working Papers. DOI 10.1596/1813-9450-4308.
  40. Maharjan, S. and Maharjan, K. (2018) “Roles and contributions of community seed banks in climate adaptation in Nepal”, Development in Practice, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 292-302. DOI 10.1080/09614524.2018.1418838.
  41. McLeman, R. and Smit, B. (2006) “Migration as an adaptation to climate change”, Climatic Change, Vol. 76, No. 1-2, pp. 31-53. E-ISSN 1573-1480. ISSN 0165-0009. DOI 10.1007/s10584-005-9000-7.
  42. McSweeney, C., New, M. and Lizcano, G. (2008) “UNDP climate change country profiles: Vietnam”, School of Geography and the Environment of the University of Oxford: Oxford: UNDP, 27 p. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 31 Jan. 2019].
  43. Mendelsohn, R., and Seo, S. N. (2007) “Climate change adaptation in Africa: a microeconomic analysis of livestock choice”, Policy Research Working Paper, The World Bank. DOI 10.1596/1813-9450-4277.
  44. Nguyen, H. D. and Le, T. D. P. (2012) “How severe is the impact of climate change on crop production in the Mekong Delta Vietnam?”, Journal of International Business Research, Vol. 11, Special Issue, No. 2. E-ISSN 1544-0230, ISSN 1544-0222.
  45. Nguyen, H. N. (2007) “Flooding in Mekong River Delta, Viet Nam”, In "Human Development Report 2007/2008". ISBN 978-0-230-54704-9.
  46. Nhemachena, C. and Hassan, R. (2007) “Micro-level analysis of farmers adaption to climate change in Southern Africa”, IFPRI Discussion Paper 00714, Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA) and Intl. Food Policy Res. Inst. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 31 Jan. 2019].
  47. Nicholas, W. and Gina, Z. (2012) “Adapting to climate change in South Africa: commercial farmers' perception of and response to changing climate”, South African Geographical Journal, Vol. 94, No. 2, pp. 152-173. E-ISSN 2151-2418, ISSN 0373-6245. DOI 10.1080/03736245.2012.742783.
  48. Niles, M. T., Lubell, M. and Brown, M. (2015) “How limiting factors drive agricultural adaptation to climate change”, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 200, No. 178-185. ISSN 0167-8809. DOI 10.1016/j.agee.2014.11.010.
  49. Nordhagen, S. and Pascual, U. (2013) “The impact of climate shocks on seed purchase decisions in Malawi: implications for climate change adaptation”, World Development, Vol. 43, pp. 238-251. ISSN 0305-750X. DOI 10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.08.002.
  50. Park, S. E., Marshall, N. A., Jakku, E., Dowd, A. M., Howden, S. M., Mendham, E. and Fleming, A. (2012) ‘Informing adaptation responses to climate change through theories of transformation”, Global Environmental Change, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 115-126. ISSN 0959-3780. DOI 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.10.003.
  51. Preacher, K., and Hayes, A. (2008) “Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models”, Behavior Ressearch Methods Methods, Vol. 40, pp. 879-891. E-ISSN 1554-3528. ISSN 1554-351X. DOI 10.3758/BRM.40.3.879.
  52. Smit, B. and Pilifosova, O. (2003) “Adaptation to climate change in the context of sustainable development and equity”, Sustainable Development, Vol. 8, No. 9. E-ISSN 1099-1719. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 31 Jan. 2019].
  53. Srivastava, V. and Giles, D. (1987) “Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations Models”, New York: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0824776100.
  54. StataCorp (2017) “Stata 15 Base Reference Manual”, College Station, TX: Stata Press. ISBN-13 978-1-59718-249-2.
  55. Tenge, J. D. G. and Hella, J. P. (2004) “Social and economic factors affecting the adoption of soil and water conservation in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania”, Land Degradation and Development, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 99 -114. E-ISSN1099-145X. DOI 10.1002/ldr.606.
  56. Thomas, D. S. G., Chasca, T., Henny, O. and Bruce, H. (2007) “Adaptation to climate change and variability: farmer responses to intra-seasonal precipitation trends in South Africa”, Climatic Change, Vol. 83, No. 3, pp. 301-322. E- ISSN 1573-1480, ISSN 0165-0009. DOI 10.1007/s10584-006-9205-4.
  57. Tol, R. S. J., and Yohe, G. W. (2007) “The weakest link hypothesis for adaptive capacity: An empirical test”, Global Environmental Change, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 218-227. ISSN 0959-3780. DOI 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.08.001.
  58. Wiid, N. and Ziervogel, G. (2012) “Adapting to climate change in South Africa: commercial farmers' perception of and response to changing climate”, South African Geographical Journal, Vol. 94, No. 2, pp. 152-173. E-ISSN 2151-2418, ISSN 0373-6245. DOI 10.1080/03736245.2012.742783.
  59. Wolf, J. and Moser, S. C. (2011) “Individual understandings, perceptions, and engagement with climate change: insights from in-depth studies across the world”, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 547-569. E- ISSN 1757-7799. DOI 10.1002/wcc.120.
  60. World Bank (2013) “Turn up the heat. Climate extremes, regional impacts, and the case for resilience”, Washington, DC: World Bank. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 31 Jan. 2019].
  61. Yu, B., Zhu, T., Breisinger, C. and Hai, N. M. (2010) “Impacts of climate change on agriculture and policy options for adaptation”, IFPRI Discussion Paper 01015, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 31 Jan. 2019].
  62. Yusuf, A. A. and Francisco, H. (2010) “Hotspots! Mapping climate change vulnerability in Southeast Asia”, Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia. ISBN 9789810862930.
  63. Zellner, A. (1962) “An effi cient method of estimating seemingly unrelated regressions and tests for aggregation bias”, Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 57, pp. 348-368. E-ISSN 1537-274X, ISSN 0162-1459. DOI 10.1080/01621459.1962.10480664.

Full paper

  Full paper (.pdf, 624.21 KB).