THE JOURNAL ON-LINE PAPERS IN ECONOMICS AND INFORMATICS

ISSN 1804–1930

The international journal AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics is a scholarly open access, blind peer-reviewed by two reviewers, interdisciplinary, and fully refereed scientific journal. The journal is published quarterly on March 30, June 30, September 30 and December 30 of the current year by the Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague. The journal prefers scientific papers by international teams of authors who deal with problems concerning the focus of our journal in the world-wide scope with relation to Europe.

Geoinformation Methodology of Agricultural Land Evaluation for Agricultural Economic Growth

ABSTRACT

The formation of an economically developed management system for the country's agro-industrial complex cannot be considered only from the point of view of a separate science. Land resources are the source of profit, which is involved in almost all sectors of society. Land preservation and improvement is required to ensure an economic security and competitiveness of each region of the Russian Federation). The dynamics of changes in the areas of Svetloyarsky district of the Volgograd region in the context of municipalities is analyzed. The actual deviation of the area of Privolzhsky rural settlement amounts to 2,3 % of the statistical data. The boundaries and areas of the used plots of arable land in the Raigorod settlement do not coincide with the data of the state cadastral registration, the discrepancy of only one land plot is 422,44 hectares. By implementing GIS-technologies, the data were obtained for 2355 arable land plots, whereof the irrigated land area amounts to 52138 hectares, instead of the potentially possible 19455 hectares, that exceeds the settlement's capabilities by 2,7 times according to the statistical data.

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Climate Change and Sustainability in Czech Wheat Production

ABSTRACT

The paper deals with the analysis of Czech wheat production and its determinants. We use the Just and Pope (1979) stochastic production function to estimate the effects of economic and weather variables, together with technological progress and climate change, on wheat yield in the Czech regions in the period 1961–2018. The results suggest that both economic and environmental factors play important roles in the wheat yield function. The output/input price ratio has a positive effect on the wheat yield. The effects of temperature and precipitation are month-specific and highly non-linear. Technological change also has a positive effect on yield, whereas climate change has a rather negative effect on wheat yield.

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Analysis of Calculation Methods Currently Practised at V4 Agricultural Holdings

ABSTRACT

This paper assesses calculation methods in the Visegrad 4 countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia) and, based thereon, recommends and considers activity-based costing (ABC) in the agricultural sector, while evaluating manager knowledge of ABC as an appropriate alternative to outdated, “conventional” methods of calculating costs that are used in practice. It was found that a majority of agricultural holdings in the V4 are currently using conventional cost calculation methods and the most frequent reason for their failure to incorporate ABC is low awareness among managers. Farms and agricultural holdings that have introduced ABC and utilise it to assign their costs evaluate its benefits highly positively, in particular, ABC’s more accurate identification of costs, mainly overheads; more effective cost management and the accuracy of price estimates. From this analysis and assessment, introduction of ABC is recommended for companies in order to obtain the different benefits associated with the method. Successfully implementing ABC leads to a number of advantages, especially in the inevitable decision-making agricultural holdings face about high overhead costs. From the information obtained, managers at agricultural holdings have little information, in most cases, about ABC as an appropriate alternative to the outdated “conventional” cost estimate methods practised today. It is therefore important to work on raising managers' awareness of new approaches to costing by publishing scientific articles with specific examples from practice, pointing out the advantage of the ABC method, especially with high overheads, which are almost the rule in agricultural holdings.

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INSPIRE Hackathons and SmartAfriHub – Roadmap for Addressing the Agriculture Data Challenges in Africa

ABSTRACT

Digital farming holds enormous potential for agricultural development, and giving farmers the tools to boost productivity and profitability. Although the benefits of digitalization are numerous, farmers feel they are not the ones benefiting from the value of data collected on their farms. Several issues were identified as factors restricting farmers from benefiting from data-driven agriculture. From the farmers’ perspective, there is a distinct lack of awareness of the issues surrounding farm data, and the complexity of these issues. This feeds into the imbalance that exists between individual farmers and larger agribusinesses wherein the former lack enough resources to address and analyse the significance of data, and so cannot take advantage of the value in it. There is also limited legislation for the generation, flow, exchange and use of data; where legislation does exist, it is not well understood by farmer organisations. From a policy perspective, moreover, there is very little guidance as to which agricultural data can be considered personal data, and therefore protected by privacy laws. This paper analyses the interactions and effects of the 5 Concepts: Open Agricultural Data, Open-Source Software, Citizen Science, privacy and legal and ethical issues that are assumed to advance the digitalization of African Food System (AFS and the enabling Digital Innovation Hub (DIH) - SmartAfriHub (https://www.smartafrihub.com/home).

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Dynamics of Food Price Volatility and Households’ Welfare in Nigeria

ABSTRACT

One of the most important economic factors in food choice is the price. Food dynamics' value is a subject of controversies and opinions, especially price issues, and sensitivity is often peculiar to seasons and market forces. Price dynamics have the potential to introduce and change consumptions, thus affecting household welfare. This study examined the dynamics of food price volatility and households' welfare in Nigeria from 1990: Q1 to 2019: Q4. We sourced the study data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Bank (WB). We estimated the quadratic trend equation, Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH), and Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) models. Food prices and depth of food deficit had a significant short-run impact on the households' welfare. Policymakers should focus on the short-term benefits while formulating policies aimed at households' welfare because policies aimed at the household level are impactful in the short-run compared to the long-run.

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Microfinance as a Mechanism against Financial Exclusion in the European Rural Areas – an Inspiration for the Czech Republic

ABSTRACT

One of the factors influencing the emergence of disparities between rural and urban regions is the varying level of financial inclusion of the population. The system of microfinancing is becoming an important mechanism against poverty and social exclusion in Europe. However, there is available very limited legal, regulatory and historical information on the microfinance system in the Czech Republic. As a result, microfinance institutions are absent and small entrepreneurs tend to use expensive consumer credit products, thereby increasing the risk of over-indebtedness. The aim of this research is to examine the repayment performance of the European microfinance institutions with increased share of clients from rural areas. Based on an empirical statistical analysis of an unique European microfinance institutions´ database, we are presenting evidence that suggests that microfinance systems perform better in rural than in urban areas. This finding is strongly recommended for consideration in the development of policies to guide legal frameworks regarding microfinancing.

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Comparison of Situation in the Slovak and Czech Market of Milk and Dairy Products

ABSTRACT

The paper is focused on dairy sector with the emphasis on the development of consumption of milk and dairy products, including cheese, curd and other dairy products, in the last 15 years in the Slovak Republic and in the Czech Republic. The aim of the paper is to identify the level of milk and dairy products consumption, as well as to identify the main determinants affecting the consumption. Paper is also aimed at milk production with emphasis on the main problems that may affect future development on the dairy market. The primary data are obtained by consumer survey and survey aimed focused on producers of milk and dairy products. Based on the results we have identified that the milk and dairy products consumption by Slovak consumers is lower compared to the Czech Republic and the quality and price are considered as the main determinants influencing the consumption. We also found out that milk and dairy products producers are adapting their production to demand, but it is important to point out the barriers related in particular to the introduction of new technologies into production, rising input prices or growing consumer disinterest in the consumption of milk and dairy products.

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Students' Processing of Differently Structured Text Materials Focused on Agricultural Waste Disposal Using Eye-tracking

ABSTRACT

This study was focused on agricultural waste disposal (AWD) textual materials. Two educational texts are compared: designed texts traditionally with no purposeful design and structured knowledge texts, including the textual form of knowledge units. Eye-tracking technology is employed for retrieving the values of critical indicators specifying the way of reading the texts. We analysed users' visual attention and looking behaviour during the reading process. Thirty-three students worked with 45 pieces of educational texts accompanied by a didactic test. Statistical analyses show statistically significant differences neither in any indicator within studying the texts nor in the users' success rate in the didactic test. The users can work with the knowledge structured texts equivalently with the designed texts in the traditional way. The positive effect for AWD is that users can process knowledge structured texts with better results.

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How the Income Elasticity of Meat Consumption differs between social groups? A case of the UK and the Czech Republic

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the article is to show different consumer behaviour between ten different income levels (deciles) and different countries and to examine the elasticity distance between income deciles in the UK (a high-income country) and the Czech Republic (a low-income country) within the context of meat consumption. The official statistic services provided data in the Czech Republic (Czech Statistical Office, 2020) and the UK (Office for National Statistics, 2020). Data on the Czech Republic come from the household budget surveys (HBS). In contrast, corresponding data on UK consumers was drawn from the Living Costs and Food survey, which succeeded the National food survey and household expenditure survey. Both sets of data were set according to households’ structure from the EU-SILC Survey (national module of the European Union – Statistics on Income and Living Conditions). To estimate the income elasticity of meat in the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom in different consumer income groups, a time series cointegration analysis was applied to analyse the annual data for 2000-2017. The Törnquist equation and the difference between income elasticity in monetary and natural expression show saturation and preference of high quality meat in the higher-income consumers in the UK than the same groups in the Czech Republic and overall increasing demand for quality in other income groups. The results support the theory of nutrition transitions. The value of the research is that it would enable the exploration of the potential impact and nature of fiscal interventions for improving diets whilst enabling food producers to forecast meat consumption within the different customer segments.

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Evaluation of Frequencies for the IoT Telemetry in Smart Agriculture

ABSTRACT

The IoT is becoming a widely known technology for the gathering of telemetry data, while mostly the concept of Smart cities is usually seen as the most challenging area for implementation. The different situations can be found in the smart agriculture concept, where different requirements and especially conditions exist. The purpose of this paper is to make an overview of IoT frequency bands available, with special focus on the situation in the EU, their theoretical usability and, using experimental measurements of typical background noise in different bands and calculations of transmission reliability on expected distance, estimate the practical usability of those technologies in the smart agriculture, compared to the smart city’s requirements. Most of the IoT installations outside 5G systems are in the 900 MHz band, but is this well-suitable for smart agriculture?

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