No 4/2016, December

Categorization of the EU Countries in the Context of Agricultural Production


Paper provides synthesis of knowledge and empirical research on selected determinants of agricultural production and verifies the applicability of the methods of hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering in the agricultural sector. It identifies and categorizes the EU Member States in order to their clustering based on the similarity of common features in the context of direct (gross value added, support for agriculture, agriculturally utilized land) and indirect factors (employment, gross fixed capital) affecting the total agricultural production. The aim of the paper is creation of the economically meaningful groups of the EU countries that would confirm or reject the classification of old and new member states. The results of cluster analysis divided countries into three clusters, and confirmed that second cluster was represented by the new member states, and third by the old member states. Clusters were mutually different in the indicators of labour force in agriculture, support for agriculture, and agriculturally utilized land.

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Usability Analysis of Agricultural Portal eAGRI in Terms of the General Public


Nowadays simple usability is one of the key tasks of web portals, especially if these are main information portals of the government. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the usability of a web portal eAGRI ( in terms of unregistered users. This means in terms of general public in particular. The main purpose of the testing is to highlight the issues that users may encounter on this portal and determine the level of portal usability. Our usability testing was focused on a public part of the portal. The main idea of eAGRI portal is to create a central access point to information resources of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic and its subordinate organizations. Qualitative research methods were applied. Specifically, we used Heuristic evaluation as a usability inspection method and three methods of usability testing: 5 second test, 30 second test and Formalized think-aloud test.

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Convergence of Market Concentration: Evidence from Czech Food Processing Sectors


The aim of the paper is to evaluate the market concentration in the Czech food and beverages industry over the period of 2003-2014, to quantify disparities among particular sectors and to investigate the trend of market concentration. The concept of convergence is applied when investigating the trend in the long term. The market concentration in the Czech food and beverages industry has increased on average. In sectors with relatively low market concentration in 2003, the values of concentration increased more rapidly after 2003. On the contrary, the most concentrated sectors tend to change slowly over time and the concentration in some sectors even declined. On the basis of the absolute β-convergence model estimation, it was concluded that there is a trend for convergence of the market concentration in the long run to one and the same point for all sectors of the industry.

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Factors Affecting Information Security Focused on SME and Agricultural Enterprises


Progress in the field of information and communication technology is a source of advantage that improves quality of business services; increases productivity levels and brings competitive advantage to enterprises and organisations related to agricultural production. However, the use of information and communication technology (ICT) is connected with information security risks that threaten business continuity and information assets. The ICT in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) and agricultural enterprises is the source of several advantages as well as the risks resulting from information security violation and security incidents. This paper aims at the current situation of information security in SME and agricultural enterprises. Furthermore, the paper provides results of a survey focusing on identification and evaluation of the effects of internal and external factors affecting existence of risks in information security in Slovak SME and agricultural enterprises. Until now, there had not been a similar survey carried out.

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Aqua Site Classification Using Neural Network Models


India being one of the major producers of fish contributes 5.5 percent of global fish production and ranks second in the world after China. The production of aquaculture mainly depends on the quality of land selected for aqua farming. Neural Network algorithms have been applied to classify the aquaculture sites based on 6 input variables viz., water, soil, support, infrastructure, input and risk factor. An artificial neural network (ANN) consists of huge number of interconnected elements called neurons that work together to solve a specific problem. An Artificial Neural network can be used for classification, prediction, pattern recognition etc., through a learning process. In this paper, the models were constructed using three Neural Network algorithms viz., Back Propagation Network (BPN), Radial Basis Function (RBF) and Linear Vector Quantization (LVQ). The models classify each aquaculture site into 3 classes viz., suitable, moderate and unsuitable. From the results of the three models, it has been found that Radial Basis Function model not only gives accurate results but also time taken for training the dataset is less when compared with the other two Neural Network models. The results obtained from the neural network models were validated with the results of the fuzzy model.

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Future Market of Pizza: Which Attributes Do They Matter?


Pizza is eaten all over the world because of its simplicity and taste. Given its importance in the Italian diet, this paper provides a qualitative insight into fresh pizza consumption for the first time. This study deals with the perception of pizza attributes in Italy focusing on the main drivers of consumer acceptance of the traditional Margherita pizza, and analyzing in addition consumers’ preferences for novel types of pizza in the marketplace, such as those made with organic, low calorie or frozen ingredients. The results show how respondents firstly prefer to eat traditional pizza and mainly prefer organic ingredients leading Italian consumers to perceive them more positively than conventional ones. Furthermore, despite the frozen pizza market being fairly well-established in many countries, the study finds a strong propensity to buying fresh pizza in the traditional market. The role of low calorie pizzas appears to be limited despite consumers being quite interested in this type of product. The novelty of this paper is to fill the knowledge gap about new typologies of pizza available in the marketplace, by exploring consumer preferences for and perceptions of a traditionally made product in a traditional producer country. The study will also offer managerial-oriented implications to help pizza producers develop new strategies for better identifying the ongoing demand of pizza consumers both for traditional and new typologies.

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Measurement and Analysis of Quality of Service of Mobile Networks in Afghanistan – End User Perspective


Enhanced Quality of Service (QoS) and satisfaction of mobile phone user are major concerns of a service provider. In order to manage network efficiently and to provide enhanced end – to – end Quality of Experience (QoE), operator is expected to measure and analyze QoS from various perspectives and at different relevant points of network. The scope of this paper is measurement and statistically analysis of QoS of mobile networks from end user perspective in Afghanistan. The study is based on primary data collected on random basis from 1,515 mobile phone users of five cellular operators. The paper furthermore proposes adequate technical solutions to mobile operators in order to address existing challenges in the area of QoS and to remain competitive in the market. Based on the result of processed data, considering geographical locations, population and telecom regulations of the government, authors recommend deployment of small cells (SCs), increasing number of regular performance tests, optimal placement of base stations, increasing number of carriers, and high order sectorization as proposed technical solutions.

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Bolegweb Platform – Contribution to the Web Communities


The effective access to and reuse of geospatial information (GI) has come to be of critical value in modern knowledge based society. The standardized web services defined by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) are frequently used for the implementation of a spatial data infrastructure (SDI), to expose geospatial data, metadata and models on the Web. These GI are normally stored in an encoded geospatial layer, which is hidden from search engines. SDI uses a catalogue service for the web as a gateway to GI through the metadata defined by ISO standards, which are structurally diverse to OGC metadata. Therefore, a crosswalk needs to be implemented to bridge the OGC resources discovered on mainstream web with those documented by metadata in an SDI to enrich its information extent. We have to build mechanisms allowing entrepreneurs and developers access the information SDI is providing to build their apps. The paper reports a global wide and user friendly platform of OGC resources available on the web with the main goal to ensure and enhance the use of GI within a multidisciplinary context and to bridge the geospatial web from the end-user perspective, thus to open its borders to more web communities. The platform has been developed in the research project Borderless Geospatial Web (Bolegweb).

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Sources of Microbrewery Competitiveness in the Czech Republic


This article aims to determine the reasons for the number of microbreweries increasing in the Czech Republic. The analysis compares various (micro)brewing industry indicators in selected traditional beer- drinking countries. The research questions are focused on relations among number of microbreweries and demographic aspects, market concentration aspects and some other beer market indicators. Furthermore, there were made simulation – for which conditions will be in the Czech Republic 400, 500 and 1 000 microbreweries. Statistically significant dependency on the number of microbreweries are beer market concentration (Gini index), the percentage of the total population made up of the 25 – 39 years age group, and the share of domestic beer consumption in cans. Since the beginning of Economic crisis the number of Czech microbreweries has been increasing exponentially and the results suggest that the microbrewery boom will have been continuing.

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Influence of Qualitative Factors on Quantitative Determinants in the Czech Meat Industry Economy


The meat industry is one of the key sectors within the food industry in the Czech Republic. Development, especially in the pork production, is unfavourable. Negative foreign trade balance and low self-sufficiency is reported. Czech market products compete with foreign imports of meat and economic performance of enterprises plays an important role in this field. Article aims to identify qualitative factors limiting the competitiveness of the meat industry and to identify groups of enterprises with key position. The size of a company was confirmed as an only factor limiting the competitiveness. Statistically significant differences among the three performance indicators (out of the four analysed) were demonstrated. The larger the enterprise, the greater values of indicators are. Form of company ownership, drawing subsidies and region of the company cannot be confirmed as factors influencing the economic performance and competitiveness.

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The Demand of Services for Information Technology Industry in Indonesia


This research has a goal for analyzing determinant demand of telecommunication services either mobile phone or internet in Indonesia. This research uses secondary data of publication result from the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics in 2012-2013 period for 34 provinces in Indonesia. The demand for mobile phone is considered as the function of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and the region for dummy while the demand of internet service is the function of mobile phone service request, GDP per capita, proportion of educated society, proportion of the employment, and the region as a dummy. This research also modifies the model by placing the region as a moderating variable on GDP per capita. Furthermore, it is also done by using reduced form (mediation) to estimate the indirect effect on mobile phone ownership towards internet service request. The result of research showed that the demand for mobile phone and internet in Indonesia was influenced by income factor (GDP per capita). Yet In Indonesia, there are still imbalances in adapting the information technology (internet) between the area of Java-Bali and the outside of those areas. The result of research also showed that the demand for the telephone was able to be mediation of internet use. However, some regions (Maluku and Papua) have not optimally exploited mobile phone to access the internet compared to other regions.

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Evaluation of Market Relations in Soft Milling Wheat Agri-food Chain


This paper deals with the assessment of price transmission in partial chains of soft milling wheat on example of the Czech Republic. The price transmission examination is accompanied by an international comparison of analyzed topic. The analysis is carried out for the chain of smooth flour, white baked goods and consumer bread. In all cases, the relation of the farm-gate price – wholesale price – consumer price is examined. The aim of the article is to address the question of whether all of the partial product chains of soft milling wheat can be considered identical in terms of the formation of the price and its transmission to other levels. The analysis itself is based upon variables in the form of time series containing monthly data for the period of January 1999 – October 2011, the time series contain 154 observations. Subsequently, the possibility of the results generalization was verified based on the results of the price transmission in period of January 2012 – December 2015. Price transmission is modeled with the utilization of the Vector Error Correction Model and co-integration analysis. The research showed certain congruent features of the analyzed chains, which can be further generalized. However, significant differences were also established, which constitute the uniqueness of each chain. One-way relations were established on some market levels, while mutual relations were established on others. Overall, the relations in the analyzed agri-food chains can be considered long-term, inelastic and demand-driven. Price transmissions in the chains do occur, individual changes in partial prices are followed by the relevant reaction.

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The Influence of Investment Costs on Biogas Station Development and Their Impact on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Czech Agriculture


The paper present the results for the influence of investment costs into biogas station on the amount of emissions from the agricultural sector. For the evaluation is applied structural analysis of major factors affecting the level of CO2 emissions from agriculture. Among these factors are: the number of animals (converted to livestock units), cost of investment in biogas plants, the quantity of nitrogen fertilizers and the total amount of CO2 emissions from agriculture. The results show that the investment costs haven't significant influence despite the correct direction of effect. Significant impact on CO2 emissions from agriculture have the numbers of animals (respectively cattle units). In the case of applications reviewed model from the Czech Republic to selected countries of the EU shows that the highest investment costs and also decrease CO2 equivalent emissions from agricultural biogas plants is in Germany. The high number of agricultural biogas plants is also evident in Italy and the United Kingdom. Investment costs are in these two countries in the range of 115 to 144 mld. CZK. Furthermore, it is evident that the significant investment costs are incurred by the smaller countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Belgium). Investment costs in this case are in the range 10-33 mld. CZK.

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Subsidies on Investments in the EU Member States


The article compares the investment subsidies in agriculture within the EU member states throughout the period of 2004 – 2013 based on the FADN database. Low investment level affects the cost and efficiency of agricultural production and thus the overall competitiveness of agricultural production. European programs providing support for the investments for agriculture aim at improving agricultural competitiveness. Development of subsidies on investment, property and Farm Net Income adjusted to economic size of enterprise by correlation analysis is compared in every EU country. Using cluster analysis, the member states were divided into groups according to subsidies on investments, their share in gross investment and the share of gross investments in fixed assets. The relationship between subsidies on investments and gross investment ranges from middle to higher dependency. The amount of subsidies on investments does not significantly affect the amount of current Farm Net Income.

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Architecture of a Management Information System for Farmers


In view of growing importance of data, information and knowledge in companies has become very actual issue of the quality of their processing through the information system modules. Using of modules of the management information systems for qualified analyzes conducted over primary data stored in companies in the Czech Republic is not too widespread. The aim of this article is based on a long-term investigation conducted to analyze the situation and propose for agricultural holdings architecture management information system for farmers to support their decision-making activities.

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