No 3/2022, September

Estimating E-workability Components Across Central European Countries


At present, shifting the workforce to a home-based work environment was and is a necessary response to Covid-19 crisis. In the post-pandemic work environment, e-working may continue being popular even in agribusiness. The study objective was to examine the motives for adopting face-to-display working environments within selected V4 countries and Austria in 2019, with the study being done in terms of the various components related to the spread of e-working. The study adopted Spearman’s Rho correlation using 16 numerical variables to measure the strength of association between two variables (e-working and 16 numerical variables). This study investigated the impact of 16 selected factors in determining e-workability in V4 countries and Austria. The study found that when e-working and the percentage of GDP services are considered, a very strong positive correlation is indicated: As the GDP increases, the probability of e-working increases. High levels of education and of technology reveal a strong positive correlation. When the number of highly educated employees decreases, the number of e-workers decreases. In respect of technology, greater utilisation of digital public services, internet access and computer access from the home increase the likelihood of e-working. A medium education level and the use of the internet show a strong negative correlation: When the medium educational attainment level rises, e-working decreases. As the utilisation of the internet increases, the proportion of e-working falls. These components affected higher e-workability. Through the examination of the motives for adopting face-to-display working environments, this study advances the knowledge in the e-working field of the selected countries.

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Predicting the Impact of Internet of Things on the Value Added for the Agriculture Sector in Iran Using Mathematical Methods


In terms of water resources, Iran has less fresh water than its population demands. Also, due to climate change, inefficient management and excessive consumption of this vital resource, the water shortage situation is becoming more critical day by day. Searching for a solution for sustainable use of water sources, this study proposes utilizing the Internet of things technology in order to implement smart irrigation in agricultural lands in Iran. Investigating the economic impact of the Internet of Things in Iran’s agriculture sector is the purpose of this article. The most important advantages of using smart irrigation are decreasing water consumption and increasing the productivity of agricultural yields (e.g., fruits, vegetables, etc.). This research attempts to predict Iran's economic growth in the event of smart irrigation implementation in agricultural fields and farms. The effect of investment in smart irrigation on water consumption and agricultural production is estimated by regression with cross-sectional data. In the end, by using the information obtained through the mathematical method, Iran's economic growth through GDP growth is estimated in the case if the Internet of things technology is fully implemented and the full benefits of using this technology are gained.

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A Historical Cum Empirical Overview of Agriculture Spending and Output Nexus in India


This research aims to have a holistic view of the relationship between agriculture outcome/output and agricultural spending in India. The unique part of the study is that it highlighted the nexus between agriculture outputs from a historical point of view. The empirical part of this study is analyzed using the development of the co-integration method followed by the VECM model. The empirical analysis shows -a long-run association between agriculture spending and production, and this feedback is bidirectional. Agricultural production positively responds to agricultural spending in India both in the short and long run, especially in sowing seasons. However, the exciting finding of the study is that the speed of adjustment of agricultural spending on output is plodding. This implies that any shock of the agricultural production can be corrected by agricultural spending by just 20 percent, and it will take more than four years to stabilize the agricultural output with agricultural expenditure. Thus the tendency of agrarian spending to stabilize agrarian output in India is not so encouraging.

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Digital Agriculture in Viet Nam: Conditions and Prospect of Development


The real context of climate change and pandemic has emphasized the enormous significance of agriculture to society and paved a path to digitization. Each country's agricultural digitalization strategies must not only focus on the technological aspects of the production system but as well present an overview of how this field of study is establishing and developing. To address this issue, a research was carried out to identify priority research questions concerning digital agriculture in Viet Nam, but with a view to also informing international contexts. The study applied a combination of methods including descriptive statistics, review of related researches reflecting the application of digital technology in agriculture, as well as systematic and institutional approaches to create the conditions for the development of digital agriculture. Concurrently, taking into account the readiness limitation of economic actors' for digital transformation is also presented in this study. Viet Nam is in the early stages of digital transformation in agriculture. Digital readiness is critical to grasping and implementing existing technologies and transforming agriculture. In order for the digital transformation to come into play in a positive way, the institutional decisions of the authorities are crucial to the major challenges facing Viet Nam's agriculture, such as digital inequalities, human resources, financial, and infrastructure constraints and inadequate awareness of existing technologies.

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Corporate Transparency, Sustainable Development and SDG 2 and 12 in Agriculture: The Case of Ukraine


This paper explored sustainability transparency and SDGs 2 and 12 disclosure and its influence on their overall efficiency, using data from Ukrainian agricultural companies. To do this Sustainability Transparency Index (STI) methodology is developed and used. The following hypothesis is tested: the higher the STI score is, the better position of the company is among its peers. For these purposes, STI index is calculated for the top100 Ukrainian agriculture companies. Correlation analysis, Granger causality tests and regression analysis provide evidences in favour of high dependence of position in top100 from the STI score: the more efforts companies invest into Sustainability Transparency, the higher the position in ranking is. This is direct evidence that companies’ sustainability transparency is an important element of its activity nowadays. Recommendations to improve sustainability transparency based on suitable reporting practices are provided in this paper.

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Agricultural Development Around Protected Areas in Vietnam: Agroecology Perspective


Agricultural development nearby protected areas is required to minimize negative impacts from uses of off-farm resources as well as improper activities on the ecosystem and ensure livelihood for local farming communities. This research aims at assessing agricultural management practices and outcomes toward agroecology of rice cultivation in the buffer zone of Xuan Thuy National Park. Data were gathered from ecosystem managers, communal authorities and 96 rice cultivators living in 14 villages adjacently to the park in 2017-2018. “Traffic light” approach developed by FAO was used as an analytical technique to evaluate and visualize the environmental sustainability of rice cultivation with three levels of desirable, acceptable and unsustainable. The assessment reveals that none of the environmental indicators achieved at sustainable including fertilizer management, soil fertility, pesticide management, biodiversity preservation, and water conservation. Therefore, agricultural development in this area is required to be scrutinized for improvements especially the overdependency on nitrogen fertilizers, improper application of pesticides, limited adoption of biodiversity-friendly practices as well as other environmentally-friendly practices. The research highlights the need of implementing agroecological approach and special regime for protected area buffer zone to strengthen environmental preservation.

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Financing Gap of Agro-food Firms and the Role of Policies


The objective of this paper is to evaluate the position and financing needs of agri-food industry in Slovakia. There is a growth of agri-food sector which is reflected in growing demand for finance. Despite current favourable conditions on the financial market in Slovakia, some viable firms still face a credit constraint. Financing gap exists due to relatively high interest rates for some firms and due to their lack of sufficient collateral. Based on the survey results and focus group meetings we estimate the financing gap. Results show that there is potential for a further expansion of the financing market, with a financing gap estimated at EUR 36.8 mil. Small firms suffer the most from the financing gap and they constitute 77.4% of the gap. Financing gap and financing needs will be growing in the future. Firms need to increase investment to stay competitive on the market and need to adopt to changes in consumer preferences. This requires further investment into new technology and equipment. Tougher environmental requirements make firms invest into more environmentally friendly production processes. Furthermore, the sector is expected to be growing in the future. Financial instruments in the form of loan guarantees and interest rate subsidies would partly eliminate the existing financing gap. Small firms would benefit from simple and flexible financial instruments serving as guarantees for loans. Large firms would benefit from long-term loans supported by financial instruments. Policy-makers should place special attention on the use of financial instruments in agri-food sub-sectors with potential high value added and high employment.

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The Relationship between Working Capital and Profitability of Companies Operating in the Food Industry in the Czech Republic


The aim of this article is to determine the relationship between working capital and profitability of companies operating in the food industry in the Czech Republic and then find out how working capital affects the profitability of these companies from 2009 to 2019. In the first part of the research we estimate the links between working capital measured by variables such as cash conversion cycle, current assets ratio, current liabilities ratio, working capital ratio and corporate profitability measured by return on sales. In the next part of the research, we estimate the effect of working capital measured by variables such as cash conversion cycle, current assets ratio, current liabilities ratio, working capital ratio on corporate profitability measured by return on sales. Correlation analysis and the GMM method will be used to determine the relationship between working capital and the profitability of companies and how working capital affects the profitability of these companies. The results of the correlation analysis showed statistically significant links between return on sales and variables such as cash conversion cycle, current assets ratio, current liabilities ratio and working capital ratio. The results of the GMM method showed a statistically significant effect of variables such as cash conversion cycle, current assets ratio, current liabilities ratio and working capital ratio on the profitability of companies measured by the return on sales indicator. All mitigated effects have been demonstrated for companies operating in the food industry as a whole, as well as in the production of food products and beverages.

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The Contribution of Energy Use and Production to Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Evidence from the Agriculture of European Countries


The submitted study investigates the role of energy use in agriculture and agricultural output in carbon dioxide emissions with the presence of instrumental variables such as rural population and urbanisation. The data set covers 27 European countries during the period 2010–2020. The quantitative approach was applied using cluster analysis with the previous identification of relations between variables by factor analysis. As the second approach, the Two-Stage Least Square (TSLS) model was estimated. Based on the results, three clusters were created. The heatmap demonstrated the similarity between the comprised countries. The most similar countries are Greece and Hungary, while the most different countries are Luxembourg and Malta. Performed TSLS analysis showed that an increase in energy use is associated with an increase in carbon dioxide emissions. On the other hand, greater agricultural output is associated with lower emissions. However, the statistical significance differs across the individual clusters.

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Shareholder Value Generation within the Agro-Food Financial Supply Chain


The article aims to define the Czech Agro-Food supply chain and develop financial metrics to quantify the economic value added generated within the supply chain. The study is based on a sample of complete financial statements from 2011 to 2018 from the agro-food organisations. The authors prove that the retail sale sector generates high shareholder value. Contrary to that, the wholesale sector´s shareholder value deteriorated over the respective period owing to reinforced capital intensity measures, resulting in low profitability. A special case is primary agricultural production, where the low shareholder value is offset by public transfers influencing all value drivers either directly or non-directly. These constantly changed, both in the single sector and financial supply chain, thus concluding the latter is dynamic in its nature. The primary agricultural production (Agro) faced specific conditions due to significant public transfers in the form of subsidies etc., thus influencing non/directly all shareholders´ value drivers and consequently reducing the originally expected vulnerability. The authors have found that the shareholder value is not generated and distributed evenly within the Czech Agro-Food supply chain; therefore, the “scissors” are expending in favour of the Retail sector at the expense of the others, especially of the Agro sector.

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