No 2/2021, June

Heterogeneity of Agricultural Land Use Systems and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: Relationship and Evidence from Rural Nigeria


Several factors influencing rural-poverty in sub-Saharan-Africa, for all the factors, agricultural-land access/management and “culture of poverty” are quite dominant in literature. This study examines socio-cultural/economic factors influencing poverty and establishes linkages of heterogeneity of land-use systems. Farm-level cost–route surveys of cross-sectional national-data of 800 respondents were used for analysis. Data were analyzed by descriptive-statistics, trans-logarithmic model, and poverty-measures. Descriptive statistics depict land-ownership structure, farmer’s socio-cultural practices, and exploits of government intervention programs influenced agricultural-poverty. Trans-logarithmic coefficients results of short-run sustainability-index (SRSI), land-policy intervention variables and household-sizes are dominance factors. Also, SRSI indicated 0.69, suggesting that 69% of the farmers made unsustainable use of agricultural-land. Moreover, 92% of extremely poor respondents with large household-sizes (61.2%) seek their agricultural-land ownership by rentage, while those with land-titled documents constitute 78.6% of the non-poor. Public-policy interventions must take into account formalization of land-property rights in order to facilitate its transferability and boosting investment.

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E-working: Country Versus Culture Dimension


Globalisation and increasing digitisation mean that companies must increasingly orientate themselves internationally in order to become (more) competitive or to remain competitive. Promoting e-working can revitalise rural development. The issue involved is always interaction between people from different cultures, between people who, according to their cultural backgrounds, feel, think and act differently. When cultural diversity and differences are taken into account, greater creativity, more diverse ideas and faster problem solving are achieved. The cultural dimensions, according to Geert Hofstede, offer a comprehensive model for capturing the various expressions of intercultural values. This paper examines the motives for applying e-working in selected European countries in 2018 according to Hofstede’s six dimensions of national culture. Twenty-eight countries from the Eurostat database were analysed (Finland and the Netherlands were excluded, and software detected them in the e-working variable as outliers). Correlation with e-working is statistically significant at PDI (power distance index - negative: the lower the PDI index, the higher the proportion of e-working) and IVR index (indulgence versus restraint - positive: the higher the IVR index, the higher the proportion of e-working).

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Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP): Analysis of Agriculture of the State of Paraná-Brazil


The way the researcher groups his research data will influence the result of his work. In the literature, this phenomenon is treated as a Problem of the Modifiable Areal Unit. The objective of this article was to analyze the three spatial levels by Municipalities, Regional Centers and Mesoregions using the following data: gross domestic product, effective agricultural production, grain production and gross value of agricultural production for the state of Paraná-Brazil in the period since 2012 until 2015. The methodological procedure studied data from the Paranaense Institute for Economic and Social Development of the above-named variables collected on the website of the Paranaense Institute for Economic and Social Development of the 399 municipalities, 23 regional centers and 10 mesoregions. The results found show the presence of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem, presenting different results for each level of grouping. The study revealed the problem of the modifiable areal unit is a relevant occurrence and it should be disregarded by researchers who work with clusters of spatial data in their studies. The results found allow a better understanding of the scale effect and demonstrate the efficiency of spatial analysis in socioeconomic data.

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The Dynamics of the Social Network of Urban Farmers in Subak Sembung Denpasar


A reduction in the number of farmers, urbanization, limited land, poverty, environmental changes, uncertainty of production results and limited access to resources are still being serious problems and have a direct effect on farmers' income. Facing that conditions, in order to survive, social networks are one of the adaptation strategies implemented by the farmers. This research aimed to examine the social phenomena of urban farmers in Subak Sembung, Denpasar City and to try to find the rational actions conducted by the farmers in dealing with economic problems that occurred. This research was conducted in March - October 2020. The location of Subak Sembung was chosen because Subak Sembung is a subak that still exists in Denpasar City. The total samples were 20% of the total population, which is 40 people. This research used qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative method in this research was using a case study, while the quantitative method used a survey. The research results showed that social, economic and environmental changes that occurred caused urban farmers to adapt. The adaptation pattern that was implemented was to apply a survival strategy and a double income pattern. The economic condition of urban farmers in Denpasar City was very good. The social network that was formed is a social network to fellow farmers, farmers to management subak, and farm shops. Action rationalism was performed in the context of improving the economy, working relations, and preserving culture.

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The Evaluation of Agricultural Land Use Sustainability in the Post-Socialist Camp Countries: Methodological and Practical Aspects


An effective implementation of the sustainable use of agricultural land program is impossible without reliable results of the current state of the problem. In this sense, the correct selection of indicators and methods for determining the level of stability is important. The authors proposes the definition of the agricultural land use sustainability integral indicator based on three methodological approaches: the construction of the indicators system, each of them reflects some aspects of the land use sustainability at the macro level (according to the specific issues); the construction of the integral indicator for comparing the countries’ land use sustainability. According to the given methods it has been proved that agricultural land use in the countries of the post-socialist camp has a positive dynamics, but the sustainability indicators for all indicators have not achieved yet. This study was supported in part by the Erasmus SUPPA program – Jean Monnet Associations Application No 611556-EPP-1-2019-1-UA-EPPJMO-SUPPA.

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The Internet of Things - the Nearest Future of Viticulture


It is recognized that viticulture and wine sector in general successfully combines traditions and innovations. The Internet of Things technology has already found its way to the vineyards as a prospective innovation. The innovations in wine industry are discussed in the publications, however, IoT not so often falls within the focus. In order to show the production and consumption trends in viticulture we rely mostly on the data accumulated by the International Organization of Vine and Wine. Some analytical materials of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations were also relevant for this study. The information about implementation of Internet of Things is quite fragmentated by now and was collected from different sources. At least two drivers of Internet of Things in viticulture could be mentioned. The first is the climate change and the need to respond to its challenges by wine growers. Technology helps to detect the changes and suggest the best and timely solutions. The second reason why the IoT has prospective in wine sector follows from the characteristics of wine and its consumption trends. There are quite a few strategic decisions to be taken by wine producer and consumers related to wine. These strategic decisions need to be based on a precise data accumulation and processing. The Internet of things is relevant for the decisions of storage, sales, ratings, and collectibles. The range of end-users of the data processing is wide enough in the wine sector. The Internet of Things is already reality of viticulture and it has prospective to develop further. This paper argues that viticulture is a readily open for the IoT and there is a field for IoT implementation in there.

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Cloud Computing in Agricultural Enterprises in Slovakia


We are currently making great strides in the field of ICTs, which is associated with the availability of other larger volumes of information any species. There are problems with their analysis, storage, as well as security in companies. The aim of the paper was to focus on the agricultural sector in terms of innovation. In the presented article we deal with the issue of cloud computing and its use in management in agricultural enterprises in Slovakia. We characterize cloud computing, its advantages and disadvantages, as well as the current use of this service by agricultural entreprises in Slovakia. We used the method of questionnaire survey and personal interview to investigate the above problems. We also focused on the study of cloud computing and related issues from available foreign sources. The results show that agricultural enterprises in Slovakia use cloud computing services less with comparing to the countries of EU.

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Consumption and Beef Price Changes on Demand in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia


Households consume animal protein after carbohydrate food is fulfilled, moreover animal protein prices are increasing. This study aims to analyze the effect of rising beef prices on demand. The demand system approach uses the Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) model. Estimation of parameters using Iterated non-linear Seemingly Unrelated Regression. The research data use the 2016 National Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas, 2016), amounting to 10,751 households. The results of the study concluded that beef is the third most elastic animal food after fresh fish and chicken meat. Fresh fish in the most elastic among all animal foods with a demand elasticity of 3.31%, followed by chicken, beef, milk powder, and eggs with demand elasticities of 1.55%, 1.62%, 1.29%, and 0.80%, respectively. Beef is a luxury item with an income elasticity of 1.59%, as well as fresh fish, chicken meat, and milk powder. While eggs are normal goods. Although fresh fish is more elastic than beef, beef marginal expenditure share (MES) is higher than fresh fish MES, so that in the long run, the increase in household income tends to increase beef consumption more than fresh fish.

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Demand for Meat in Indonesia: Censored AIDS Model


This study estimates the demand for meat in Indonesian urban households encompassing beef, goat, broiler chicken, and native chicken. We estimate the demand for meat using cross-sectional data from the 2013 Indonesian Socio-Economic Household Survey data, which records food expenditure for a week before the survey. Because of some zero expenditure, the Censored Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) using the consistent two-step estimation is applied. The estimated own-price elasticities indicate that all meat products are price-inelastic. Nonetheless, broiler chicken is the most responsive meat product while goat is the least responsive meat product to price changes. All meat products are normal good referring to the estimated income elasticities. However, Native chicken is the most responsive and goat is the most unresponsive to the income change. The estimated cross-price elasticities conclude that broiler chicken and beef are substitute goods. The policy simulation indicates that beef is a meat product that is unresponsive to price and income changes. Native chicken is the most responsive meat product to price and income change, followed by broiler chicken.

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Brazil's Comparative Advantages and Specialization Dynamics in Agri-food Trade


In the last decades Brazil has become a global agri-food powerhouse. The article interrogates the shape and its stability of revealed comparative advantages in 46 of its agri-food products for the period 1995-2017. The results support the argument that the Brazil's agri-food trade was formed by comparative advantages of specific agri-food sectors. The results show that the external shape of agri-food specialization has strengthened, first since early 2000s and second when the trade shifted more towards China. The pattern was stable according revealed comparative (dis)advantage of particular products, more changes occurred in each product's score and in ranking of products. Products without initial comparative advantage seem to remain uncompetitive whilst the products with strong initial comparative advantage continue to be competitive. The persistence in distribution has increased. This suggests, the shape of Brazil's revealed comparative advantage in agri-food trade has evolved towards its finite structure (ceteris paribus).

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