No 4/2019, December

Ubiquitous Computing in Precision Agriculture: A Systematic Review


The applications of ubiquitous computing have increased in recent years, especially due to the development of technologies such as mobile computing and its integration with the real world. One of the challenges in this area is the use of context sensitivity. In agriculture, this can be considered as the context related to the environment, such as the chemical and physical aspects that characterize the different soil types. This scenario periodically changes due to factors such as climate, type of cultivar and soil management technique used, among other aspects. This article presents a systematic review on the research works that explore ubiquitous computing in precision agriculture, including which technologies are being currently applied and which gap scan still be researched. Nine scientific repositories were explored to find articles about precision agriculture and ubiquitous computing. As a result of this search and filtering process, 32 works were reviewed, analyzed and categorized between the years of 2009 and 2019. In general, the reviewed articles concentrate on problems arising from the communication between sensors and the management of context-sensitive data.

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Evaluation of Economic Efficiency of Selected Branch in Animal Production in EU and CR


The main aim is a verification whether dairy cow breeders in the Czech Republic are able to compete and have the same conditions for milk production as the state of European Union after the Czech Republic´s accession to the European Union. This evaluation is above all in the main cost items for milk depending on the amount of milk yield of cows. A partial aim is an evaluation of development of number of dairy cows and milk production in the monitored period 2000 – 2015. This judgement is used for monitoring of effects of quotas on the number and production part of dairy cows. Also the development of milk purchase prices was evaluated in the original EU 15 states and the Czech Republic. Within the evaluation of the main aim, four main cost items influencing the total dairy cow breeding were judged. The main items are costs for feed, labour costs, costs for veterinary care, and cost for breeding services. This main cost items have an effect beside the milk production on the health state of dairy cows and on reproduction because with the right function of reproductive organs a new onset of lactation curve happens and thereby an induction of higher milk yields with use of high-quality feeds. The used data are based on interview survey in milk producers.

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Analysis of the Current Support of E-marketing Activities in Selected Enterprises of the Wine Sector in Slovakia


In the digital era, implementing an effective marketing strategy requires a more comprehensive view of the marketing strategy than in the past. The concepts of older approaches are already ineffective today, but we consider it important to mention them. Organizations focus on improving production, achieving low cost and mass distribution. The product concept is based on the conviction of consumers who prefer products with the highest quality or innovative characteristics. Managers focus on producing quality products and subsequently improving them. The disadvantage is the disproportionate focus on the product (marketing near-sightedness) as on consumption. The sales concept is characterized by a gradual increase in competition and market saturation. With this characteristic, managers are using a more aggressive fixed sales strategy, paying more attention to sales and building improved sales channels. The most modern approach is the holistic marketing concept that came about with the advent of the digital era. It is a dynamic concept conditional on electronic connectivity and interactivity between the agricultural company, its customers and collaborators. It integrates value exploration, building and delivering activities for mutually satisfying relationships and shared prosperity among stakeholders. This paper summarizes the most important results of the questionnaire survey of selected companies carried out under the title: Analysis of the current support of e-marketing activities in selected enterprises of the wine sector in Slovakia. The results of the questionnaire survey are evaluated in the text based on submitted scientific hypotheses.

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Factors Affecting the Demand for Milk and Dairy Products in the Slovak Republic


Paper is aimed at dairy sector in the Slovak Republic with an emphasis on identifying the determinants causing low demand for milk and dairy products. The primary objective is to identify consumer behavior and the main factors affecting consumer choices in choosing milk and dairy products. The primary source of information is created by the results of consumer survey proving the consumption of milk and dairy products is widespread among consumers, with cheese and yoghurt as the most preferred ones. The results of the consumer survey were confronted with a survey aimed at identifying the views of producers and processors of milk and dairy products. We identified the main issues, particularly the low redemption price of milk, lack of milk consumption and the absence of sales support.

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Does Wine Quality Have a Bearing on Exports?


This study examines the macroeconomic determinants of exports, taking quality into account through vertical differentiation and using data on Portuguese Douro wines. Based on a gravity model from 2006 to 2015 and covering a range of 192 potential trade partners, estimations show that quality influences export performance. However, quality differences are not assimilated in the same way in all international markets, resulting in an export surplus of the best categories of wine to some world regions (West Europe and AngloSaxon countries) and a correspondingly export deficit to other regions (Middle East, North Africa, East Europe and Central Asia).

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Competitiveness in Dairy Trade – the Case of EU and the Visegrad Group Countries


The European Union (EU) produces 15% of its agricultural production in the dairy industry. The article focuses on the European Union and Visegrad Group’s (VG) dairy export and analyses it with Balassa’s (Revealed Comparative Advantage, RCA) index. Our aim is to explore the foundations of EU's competitiveness and the role and opportunities of the dairy sector in VG countries. The analysis is based on EU dairy export data for the period 2000-2017. The main result of the analysis is that the most competitive countries in terms of export performance (Denmark, France, Ireland and Belgium) do not fully align with the order of the largest dairy producing and processing countries (Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands) or the largest dairy exporters (Germany, the Netherlands, France and Belgium). We have discovered that some EU countries have a really strong, dominant competitive advantage. The reason for this is that the highest customer value can be achieved through the production of highly processed products, and the most competitive countries specialize in the production of one or a few of these products.

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User Experience and Usability in Agriculture – Selected Aspects for Design Systems


The paper focuses on the analysis of the applicability of usability and UX methods in the development of applications intended for use in the agrarian sector. In addition to an overview of methods and approaches suitable for this purpose, the process of advanced adoption of the UX methods in the development of agrarian software products is also described. The article also discusses ways to enable partially automated, time-efficient, and cost-effective solutions for the creation of interfaces for agricultural applications. Possibilities of future development and technologies related to the usability of products in agriculture are also outlined. The article thus covers the concept for optimizing the development of agricultural products. The main contribution is the input analysis for the future development of the agrarian design system. From such a synthesized system design, it is then possible to create application interfaces that should have seamless usability and good UX.

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Monitoring of Movement on the Farm Using WiFi Technology


The paper deals with using commercial WiFi solutions that provide wireless connection to computer networks to monitor the movement of devices within that network. Current technologies, in particular in the IoT area, make it possible to place a battery sensory device on individual objects used on the farm. These sensors, in addition to their primary ability to provide connectivity, can also be used to monitor the movement of the devices they are attached to. Indirectly, it is therefore possible to monitor the movement of objects, people and animals that are associated with this WiFi or Bluetooth device. An example could be the monitoring of the feed wagon's movement on the farm, while obtaining information about the actual amount of cargo. This allows for optimizing logistics operations or track the movement of employees with fitness bracelets. The aim of the paper is to verify the possibilities of currently available commercial wifi systems and their use for monitoring movement on the farm.

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Investments, Technical Change and Efficiency: Empirical Evidence from Czech Food Processing


This empirical study aims to shed light on the dynamic linkages among investments, technical efficiency and productivity of food processing at a sectoral level. We use data obtained from meat and milk processing firms operating in the Czech Republic. The data set covers a period from 2011 to 2015. Being based on a production function frontier framework and the Divisia index our study is focuses on the estimation of technical efficiency and productivity of Czech Food processing firms in connection with the received investments. The results of the conducted analysis have shown that investments, directed to a production process of meat and milk processing firms operating in the Czech Republic, do have a positive effect on their technical efficiency. Moreover, it provides an opportunity to increase the capacity of raw milk processing. Higher TFP in food processing industry may result in higher TFP in agriculture.

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Measuring the Similarities of Twitter Hashtags for Agriculture in the Czech Language


Our paper presents first analysis of Czech Twitter content within the agriculture context. We deployed textual analysis of more than 240,000 tweets over 2014-2019 hashtags that were, according to Google Trends, most trending and related to Czech agriculture such as #dotace, #repka, or #bionafta – both in Czech and English language. Besides descriptive statistics of the tweet dataset, we visualized keyword correlations which revealed strong focus of the discourse on rapeseed, biofuel and the prime minister Andrej Babiš. Owing to inherent political context of the given hashtags, we found spikes in topics which followed the public attention to the topics in mass media. We also found several accounts that produces high traffic for certain hashtags in Czech, yet those accounts were located abroad. Consistent with other studies, a high proportion of tweets was generated by unverified accounts that might be bots – automated accounts. We propose to conduct semantic analysis of a broader dataset over the main social media platforms in the Czech Republic.

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