Modeling Asymmetric Effects of Exchange Rate Fluctuations on Agricultural Trade Balance: Evidence from Iran and Iraq

DOI 10.7160/aol.2024.160204
No 2/2024, June
pp. 51-62

Hamad, M. A. and Falsafian, A. (2024) "Modeling Asymmetric Effects of Exchange Rate Fluctuations on Agricultural Trade Balance: Evidence from Iran and Iraq", AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 51-62. ISSN 1804-1930. DOI 10.7160/aol.2024.160204.


The exchange rate plays a crucial role in foreign trade and has asymmetric effects. This study examines the asymmetric effects of exchange rate volatility on the trade balance in the agricultural sector between Iran and Iraq, using the non-linear ARDL model from 1998 to 2020. The results show that Iraq's GDP and oil price fluctuations positively affect the trade balance. In contrast, Iran's GDP and the U.S. economic sanctions against Iran have negative and significant effects on the trade balance of Iran with Iraq in the agriculture sector. The results do not confirm the existence of the J-curve effect in the trade relations between Iran and Iraq, because an increase in the bilateral exchange rate, in both the long-run and short-run, improves the trade balance of Iran with Iraq in the agriculture sector. Furthermore, the positive and negative fluctuations of the bilateral exchange rate have different effects on the trade balance. While the devaluation of the national currency does not cause a downward trend in the short run, the exchange rate policy can improve the trade balance from the beginning.


Exchange rate, J-Curve, non-linear GARCH model, non-linear ARDL model.


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