Multivariate Analysis of Food Security and Its Driving Factors

DOI 10.7160/aol.2024.160108
No 1/2024, March
pp. 91-103

Soóki, M., Poláková, Z., Palkovič, J. and Beňovičová, K. (2024) "Multivariate Analysis of Food Security and Its Driving Factors", AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 91-103. ISSN 1804-1930. DOI 10.7160/aol.2024.160108.


The main objective of the presented paper was the analysis of the current state of food security in the world, segmentation of 100 selected countries and determination of its main driving factors. The analysis used 27 indicators covering 5 basic areas: agricultural production, poverty, demography, economic development, and environmental indicators. The analysis was based on data from the FAO and World Bank for the most recent available period, which was year 2020. The data dimension was reduced with the application of factor analysis, and the main driving factors of food sufficiency were determined. The result was 6 factors: technological development, economic development, agricultural production, environmental factor, and physical quality of life and environment. To group similar countries in terms of selected indicators, a cluster analysis was performed, whereby countries were grouped by similarity into three clusters. The 1st cluster consisted of the most economically developed countries, where only 2.54% of the population suffers from malnutrition. The countries in this cluster were characterized by high levels of economic development, high caloric intake of the population, and high, life expectancy. On the other hand, they recorded negative development in demographic indicators such as fertility and birth rates. The 2nd cluster included the poorest areas of the African continent, which were most endangered by direct food insufficiency (23.74% of the population). In contrast to the first cluster, these countries were characterized by low levels of economic development, high prices, and low-calorie intakes of the population, as well as low life expectancy, while on the other hand, these countries had high fertility and birth rates. The third largest cluster consisted of countries with a medium threat of food insufficiency, where 6.37% of the population suffers from malnutrition. The countries in the third cluster excelled in terms of crop and livestock production volumes, but in contrast to this, they achieved lower levels of fat, protein, and calorie intake of population.


Food security issues, driving factors of food security, multidimensional analysis.


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