No 2/2022, June

Towards Compromise User Experience Design in Ambient Intelligent Environment


Building, testing and evaluating UX for applications for Agricultural Ambient Intelligence Environments can be a difficult and time-consuming job. It can be an even longer and more challenging process due to their complexity and area of scope for complex intelligent systems. Many studies address the issue of UX design and evaluation of website user interface, mobiles, tangible equipment, wearable equipment and other, but it is necessary to look for UX deficiencies in all possible functions, every possible task. Depending on the structure of expert teams, experts’ opinions can vary broadly vary or may even contradict. This paper presents possibilities of use the Best-Compromise-Mean (BeCoMe) method for evaluation UX design. BeCoMe was not used for UX evaluation yet. Verification of whether the BeCoMe method is suitable for UX evaluation is carried out on a tablet using two prototypes of control panels of an intelligent environment.

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Dynamics of Competition in the Hungarian Poultry Industry


This study examines the competitive nature of the Hungarian poultry sector between 2006 and 2016. The poultry population has stagnated over the period investigated, however the farm structure has changed significantly and the population of poultry held by individual farms has decreased. In this research, market competition was measured with the persistence of abnormal profits, while profit persistence was estimated using the Arellano-Bond GMM and Blundell-Bond dynamic panel regression. Based on the results, it can be said that the level of profit in the poultry sector is close to the equilibrium profit level. The farm size, technological development as well as the tax advantages of individual farms distort competition leading to higher profits. Taking long-term risk has a negative impact on abnormal profits. The results of the research suggests that the breakthrough points for the poultry sector are technological progress and population growth, as well as a reduction in labor intensity.

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CAP After 2004: Policy to Promote Development or to Elimination Differences Between Regions? Non-parametric Approach Based on Farm Efficiency in the Old and New EU Regions


In the light of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (Treaty of Rome) of 25 March 1957, the primary aim of the Common Agricultural Policy is to provide European Economic Community citizens with adequate amounts of food at reasonable prices and to guarantee farmers a decent standard of living. That is more, the EU fund transfers were to eliminate differences between regions and promote development of individual regions. These aims proved to be particularly important following the EU enlargement in 2004. The indispensible effect of the integration process has been connected with changes in the directions of agricultural production and efficiency of utilisation of individual inputs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to evaluate the effects of the implemented policy based on univariate comparisons. In view of the above, the aim of this paper is to assess the effects of the agricultural policy and the cohesion policy implemented in the EU, focusing on the valuation of the impact of the greatest EU enlargement on this relationship. This goal was achieved thanks to constructing multivariate rankings applying the DEA super-efficiency model for average farms specialising in plant, animal and mixed production in individual EU member countries for two period. The application of the DEA efficiency model makes it possible in the computation process to take into consideration the fact that in the course of agricultural production three groups of products are manufactured involving four basic types of inputs. The starting point for the analyses was provided by data published within the FADN agenda for average farms operating in the countries being the EU members. The results showed that after the largest enlargement of the EU, in the case of plant and livestock production, a simultaneous increase in agricultural production and improvement in efficiency in the individual EU members was achieved, with a gradual reduction of disproportions in the efficiency of agricultural production between regions. The only area where such a relationship could not be observed was related to the production of mixed-type farms. The novelty of the proposed in this article approach is that it allows for simultaneous analysing of changes in EU agriculture while taking into account several perspectives: changes in the assumptions of the common agricultural policy, the consequences of EU enlargement, and results of the implementation of the cohesion policy.

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Do Subsidies Decrease the Farm Income Inequality in Hungary?


The paper investigates the impact of different sources of income on farm household income inequality in Hungary using Farm Accountancy Data Network dataset for the period 2007-2015. The decomposition of the Gini coefficients by income sources is applied to focus on the impact of the policy shift from market to government support on farm household income inequality. Off-farm income are rather stable with a slight increase impact on farm household income inequality. Pillar 1 for direct income support subsidies have remained more important than Pillar 2 for rural development subsidies for farm income due to the importance of direct payments or single area payments for crop production. A slight increase in the importance of subsidies from Pillar 2 can be linked to a policy shift towards targeting farms in less favoured areas, and a greater role of agri-environmental and other rural development payments. The most striking finding is regarding instabilities, declining pattern, and for a large majority of farms negative market income. Subsidies from Pillar 1 reduced, while market income increased farm household income inequality.

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Are There the Impacts of Environmental Regulations on Manufacturing Export? Empirical Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing


Environmental regulation is an effective tool to control environmental problems caused by foreign trade. Research conclusions are inconsistent on the relationship between environmental regulations and exports. Based on the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek model, this paper provides an empirical analysis for examination the effect of environmental regulations on manufacturing exports, adopting panel data of 16 sectors from China’s manufacturing during 2005-2015. Material capital, human capital, technology input and foreign direct investment are simultaneously selected as independent variables to explore the export impact of corresponding changes in these endowments. The pollution intensity index was introduced to categorise different manufacturing sectors. Results indicated that China’s environmental regulations intensity play different roles in the manufacturing sectors with different pollution levels. Stricter environmental regulation improves the export of intensive pollution manufacturing sectors but hinders exports in light pollution sectors. Meanwhile, other endowment factors also exert varying effects in the light, moderate and intensive pollution manufacturing sectors.

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Preferences of Small-Scale Farmers for Innovative Farming Techniques in Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda


This paper attempted to identify the determinant factors of innovative technologies preferences by small-scale farmers in the Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda. Data used were collected from a random sample of 401 small-scale crop producers using a structured questionnaire in the study area. A logit regression model was specified, whereby a binary maximum likelihood estimation method was used to identify the factors affecting of the adoption of chemical fertilizers, the determinants of the combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers, the determinants of the adoption of improved seeds, as well as the determinant factors of appropriate use of pesticides. The results showed that farmer’s education level, farming experience, membership to farm cooperative, the number of extension visits, and crop farming are the factors that affect positively the probability of adopting one or other of the four innovative farming techniques. From these results, we suggest the enhancement of extension services and other needed support to small-scale farmers (grants and subsidies, access to finance for example), the spread of professional trainings to farmers, and the increased farmers’ access to high-yielding seed varieties if farming professionalization and innovative farming techniques are still among the development goals.

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Agricultural Cooperatives and Their Impact on Economic Performance of Farms in Slovakia


Effects of membership in cooperative organizations was investigated in many studies, and their results were sometimes controversial. Presented paper contributes to discussion related to cooperative membership by comparing members and non-members, with elimination of self-selection bias, to identify motivation to become member and main effects coming from membership in producer organization. Panel data used in the presented analysis are from Ministry of Agriculture of Slovak Republic at farm level for period of years 2009-2016, which was the most recent available data. Propensity score matching approach was applied to eliminate self-selection bias and to create sample of members and corresponding non-member farms in each year. Difference between these two groups were evaluated by methods of statistical inference. In general, it can be concluded, that in presented period were members of producer organizations more profitable than non-members. Also difference in total revenue was significant in period of year 2010-2013, which means probably successful using of advantage from better bargaining position of producer organization, compared to non-members. Significant difference in profit disappeared in last three years 2014-2016, this could suggest, that membership in producer organization was less attractive to many farms which led to decrease in number of members. Membership in producer organization probably improved economic performance of farms in Slovakia in period 2009-2013, but this advantage disappeared in last years. This could be probably linked to support for producer organizations from European Union in period 2007-2013.

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Agricultural Aid and Growth in Sub Saharan Africa: a Review of Empirical Evidence


There are interesting debates on the influence of foreign aid to agriculture on economic growth in Africa. Some scholars have argued that, despite the inflows, majority of rural smallholder farmers in the continent are extremely poor. The precise channels through which foreign aid is to promote sectoral growth has been inadequately understood from the literature. This paper is a systematic literature review on the empirical evidence of the relationship between agricultural aid and growth in Sub Saharan African countries. The Generalized Methods of Moments and the Granger causality test are the main methodological approaches of papers reviewed and the relationship between agricultural aid and productivity growth is positive and quite significant. However, the results demonstrate a weak synergy between the various forms of agricultural aid and growth. The main recommendation is to have a broader conceptual, theoretical or analytical frameworks that clearly define how agricultural aid influences productivity when measured against other influencing factors. Aid is only a catalyst to growth so, governments must invest and provide the necessary infrastructure and a conducive policy environment for increased productivity and growth.

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Fair Label versus Blockchain Technology from the Consumer Perspective: Towards a Comprehensive Research Agenda


Many small farmers and workers on plantations in poorer countries constantly live on the poverty threshold. Those people suffer from rising commodity prices and trade structures that pass price pressure to the weakest link. Farmers are at the mercy of these structures and must comply as they have no other choice. On the consumers' side of the supply chain, it is often hard to recognize agricultural products' fairness and originality, especially in processed food. Many organizations – through food labelling - partially inform consumers about products' provenance and fairness. Whereas several studies confirm that food labels positively influence the consumers' intention to buy food, the vast number of organizations and labels are hard to evaluate and distinguish. A technology that could be a gamechanger in sustainable and fair global agriculture could be Blockchain Technology (BCT). With the help of BCT, the need for a central authority like a "fair label" agency may become obsolete, with the same or even better results. This conceptual article surveys subject matter literature and concludes that there is a noticeable research gap in the possibility of BCT replacing or enhancing fair food labels. Thus, the paper shows the potential of BCT to improve fairer agricultural supply chains and make them transparent for customers. By doing so, some research areas and research questions will be derived. Furthermore, specific directions for future research will be shown.

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Assessing the Digital Transformation in Two Banks: Case Study in Hungary


The influence of Industry 4.0 and the trend of economic globalization has led to growing competition among enterprises in all business sectors, then compelled them to seek new ways to create competitive advantages and sustainable development. Presently, digital transformation plays a critical role across many countries and in all sectors including the agriculture and the rural development. New players have been increasing in the banking sector in which incumbent banks are competing with other traditional banks, fintech, and big tech. Nevertheless, not all banks are successful in digital transformation. By analyzing the practices of two banks in Hungary, this study aims to highlight the digital transformation process which happens at the leading banks and compare and contrast in all dimensions at these transformations. The study results confirm that digitalization in incumbent banks is still at a low and medium level. Moreover, the study outcomes suggest that strategic planning and human resource play key roles in implementing Digital transformation. In addition, digital transformation at traditional banks is not only related to internal; external stakeholders can be drivers or barriers to this process. Government policy and support are important factors to improve the digitalization process in Hungary related to financial services for the agriculture. Based on the results obtained, the authors aim to supplement the lack of research on digital transformation in Hungary.

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