Economic Consequences of Invasive Species in ornamental sector in Mediterranean Basin: An Application to Citrus Canker

DOI 10.7160/aol.2021.130110
No 1/2021, March
pp. 131-149

Timpanaro, G., Urso, A., Foti, V. T. and Scuderi, A. (2021) “Economic Consequences of Invasive Species in ornamental sector in Mediterranean Basin: An Application to Citrus Canker", AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 131-149. ISSN 1804-1930. DOI 10.7160/aol.2021.130110.


Citrus Bacterial Cancer (CBC) is a severe phytopathy capable of compromising the economy, environment, and society in specific areas. To date, it is not present in the Mediterranean Basin. In essence, it could be a signal that European Phytosanitary Services have been able to control its spread, blocking import and marketing of fruits from risk areas or lacking the necessary phytosanitary requirements. However, in 2014 the EFSA launched the alarm on possible new forms of transmission of Xcc or Xanthomonas citri, the causative agent of the CBC, represented by the marketing of ornamental Rutaceae and the flow of tourism, to and from risk areas. In this context, the research carries aim to assess direct and indirect damages that an invasion of the CBC could cause to the sector: its impacts at the micro-economic level fall on the production system and the consumer, while at the macro level on the entire community. The traceability of plant material during commercial operations is proposed as a possible solution, even if it becomes an accessory burden for businesses and consumers. In this sense, this research intends to offer some useful information to public and private, interested parties and to plan intervention policies.


Xanthomonas citri, ornamental rutaceae, economic impact, damage assessment with income method, nurseries industry.


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