Agris on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics

Faculty of Economics and Management CULS Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 00 Praha - Suchdol

The international peer-reviewed scientific journal, ISSN 1804-1930

Causal Effect of Off-Farm Activity and Technology Adoption on Food Security in Nigeria

A. A. Obisesan

Agris on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, No 3 /2015, September

pp. 3-11

Obisesan A. A. (2015) "Causal Effect of Off-Farm Activity and Technology Adoption on Food Security in Nigeria“, AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 3 – 11. ISSN 1804-1930


This study examined off-farm activity participation, technology adoption and impact on food security status of Nigerian farming households. Data were collected using structured questionnaire through a multistage sampling technique. Propensity Score Matching, descriptive statistics and Foster-Greer-Thorbecke weighted index were employed in analysis. Participation in off-farm activity has a positive and significant (p<0.05) influence on level of adoption. The mean per capita household food expenditure (MPCHFE) was ₦30198.34 while the food insecurity line was ₦20132.22 per annum. The impact of improved technology adoption on food insecurity incidence of adopters with off-farm activity was higher than their counterparts without participation. This suggests that participation in off-farm activity and technology adoption have the potential to improve food security. Hence, there should be further sensitization on this technology to improve food security and policy measures should also be oriented towards the support and improvement of rural off-farm income opportunities.


Off-farm work, adoption, food security, rural Nigeria.


  1. Akinlade, R. J, Yusuf, S. A, Omonona, B. T. and Oyekale A. S. Poverty Alleviation Programme and Pro-poor Growth in Rural Nigeria: Case of Fadama II Project. World Rural Observations. 2011, Vol. 3, No. 1, p. 27-33. ISSN 2042-6356.
  2. Asfaw, N., Gungal, K., Mwangi, W. and Beyene S. Factors Affecting Adoption of Maize Production Technologies in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 1997, Vol. 2, p. 52-69. ISSN 2042-6356.
  3. Baker, J. L. Evaluating the impact of development projects on poverty. A handbook for practitioners. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1818 H street, N.W, Washington, D.C.20433. 2000. ISBN 0-8213-4697-0.
  4. Chilot, Y. Factors Influencing Adoption of New Wheat Technologies in the Wolmera and Addis Alem Areas of Ethiopia. An M.Sc. thesis presented to the school of graduate studies of Alemaya university of Agriculture, Ethiopia. 1994, p. 108.
  5. Chilot, Y., Shampiro, B. and Demeke, M. Factors Influencing adoption of new wheat technologies in Wolmera and Addis Alem Areas of Ethiopia.Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural economics. 1996, Vol 1, p. 63-83. ISSN 2042-6356.
  6. De Janvry, A. and Sadoulet, E. Income Strategies Among Rural Households in Mexico: The Role of Off-farm Activities. In: World Development, 2001, Vol. 29, No. 3, p. 467-480. ISSN 1873-5991, E-ISSN 0305-750X.
  7. Foster, J., Greer, J. and Thorbecke, E. A class of decomposable poverty measures. Econometrica. 1984, Vol. 52, p. 761–766. ISSN 0012-9682, E-ISSN 1468-0262.
  8. Haggblade, S., Hazell, P. and Reardon, T. Transforming the Rural Non-farm Economy. Baltimore:Johns Hopkins University Press.2007.
  9. Heckman, J., Icchimura, H. and Todd, P. Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator. Review of Economic Studies, 1996, Vol. 65, p. 261-295. ISSN 0034-6527, E-ISSN 1467-937X.
  10. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), 2011. Rural Poverty Report: Enabling Poor Rural People to Overcome Poverty. Retrieved 10th April, 2011 [Online] Available: [Accessed 25 Sept 2014].
  11. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Global Hunger Index. The Challenge of Hunger: Taming Price Spikes and Excessive Food Price Volatility.Washington DC. 2011.
  12. Johnston, J. and Dandiro, J. Econometrics Methods, 4th ed., New York: McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. 1997. ISBN 0070327203.
  13. Kristjanson P., Place, F., Franzel, S. and Thornton, P. K. Assessing Research Impact on Poverty: The Importance of Farmers Perspective. Agricultural systems. 2002, Vol. 72, p. 73-92. ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267.
  14. Lechner, M. and Smith, J. Some Exogeneous Information Should Not Be Used in Evaluation, mimeo, 2002.
  15. Csaki, C. and Lerman, Z. Agrarian reform in Belarus, what has been achieved after a decade of gradualism. Quaterly Journal of International Agriculture, 2000, Vol. 39, No. 3, p. 237-260. ISSN 0049-8599.
  16. Maddala, G. S. Limited Dependent and Quantitative Variables in Econometrics. Cambridge University Press. 1997.
  17. Mendola, M. Agricultural technology adoption and poverty reduction. A propensity Score matching analysis for rural Bangladesh. Food policy, 2007, Vol. 32, p. 372-393. ISSN 0306-9192.
  18. Mesfin, A. Analysis of factors Influencing Adoption of Triticale and its Impact.The Case Farta Wereda. Msc. Thesis (Unpublished) Presented to School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University. 2005.
  19. Mulugeta E. Determinants of Adoption of soil Conservation Practices in Central Highlands of Ethiopia. The case of three districts of Selale. M. Sc. Thesis AU. 2000.
  20. National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). Nigeria Poverty Profile. Abuja. 2012.
  21. National Population Census (NPC) National Bureau of Statistics Official Gazette (FGP 71/52007/2,500(OL24) Abuja. 2006. [Online] Available: [Accessed 15 Nov. 2014].
  22. Negash, R. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Haricot Bean Production in Alaba SpecialWoreda Southern Ethiopia. M Sc. Thesis Submitted to the Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, School of Graduate Studies Haramaya University. 2007.
  23. Nkonya, E., Schroeder, T. and Norman, D. Factors affecting adoption of improved maize seed and fertilizer in North Tanzania. 1997, Indian j. Agri.econ. Vol. 48, No. 1, p.1-1 ISSN 00195014.
  24. Núñez, J. T. The Adoption of Manure Management Practices. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis University of Missouri-Columbia. 2005.
  25. Omonona, B. T, Oni, O. A. and Uwagboe, O. A. Adoption of improved Cassava varieties and its Impact on Rural Farming Households in Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Food Information, 2005, Vol 7, No. 1, p. 40-45. DOI:10.1300/J108v07n01_05
  26. Omonona, B. T. and Agoi, C. A. An Analysis of Food Security Among Nigerian Urban Households: Evidence from Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Central European Agriculture. 2007, Vol. 8, No. 3, p. 399-406. ISSN 1332-9049. DOI
  27. Ruben, R. and Van den Berg, M. Nonfarm Employment and Poverty Alleviation of Rural Farm Households in Honduras. World Development. 2001, Vol. 29, Vol. 3, p. 549-60. ISSN 1873-5991, E-ISSN 0305-750X.
  28. Rosenbaum, P. R. and Rubin, D. R. The Central Role of the Propensity Score in Observational Studies for Causal Effects. 1983, Biometrika. Vol. 70, p. 41-55.ISSN 0006-3444, E-ISSN 1464-3510.
  29. Tesfaye, Z., Girma, T., Tanner, D. Verkuijl, H. Aklilu, I. and Mwangi, W. Adoption of Improved Bread Wheat Varieties and Inorganic Fertilizer by Small Scale Farmers in Yelma Dansa and Farta Districts of Northern Ethiopia. Mexico, D.F. Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO) and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). 2001.
  30. Tiamiyu, S. A., Akintola, J. O. and Rahji, M. A. Y . Technology Adoption and Production Difference among Growers of New Rice for Africa in Savanna Zone of Nigeria. 2009. Tropicultura, Vol. 27, No. 4, p. 193-197. ISSN ISSN 0771-3312, E-ISSN 2295-8010.

Full paper

icon of PDF documents Full paper (.pdf, 326.74 KB).

ISSN 1804-1930
© Agris on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 2009 - 2019
Faculty of Economics and Management CULS Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 00 Praha 6 - Suchdol